Indian J Lepr 2008, 80 : 257-265 Original Article


Changing Profile of Disease in Leprosy Patients
Diagnosed in a Tertiary Care Centre during Years 1995-2006


M Arora1, K Katoch1, M Natrajan1, R Kamal1, VS Yadav2
 

  1. M Arora, MBBS, DGO, Research Officer/Scientist B, Medical Unit-I

  2. K Katoch, MD, Deputy Director (SG)/Scientist F and Head, Medical Unit-I; Head, Model Rural Health Research Unit, Ghatampur, Kanpur
  3. M Natrajan, MBBS, DVD, PhD, Deputy Director (SG)/Scientist F, Medical Unit-I
  4. R Kamal, MD, Senior Research Officer/Scientist C, Medical Unit-I
  5. VS Yadav, MA (Stat), Research Assistant, Bio-statistics and Epidemiology Unit National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases (ICMR), Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India, Dr M Miyazaki Marg, Tajganj, Agra-282001, India

Abstract

A hospital based retrospective study was carried out to determine change in the profile of disease in leprosy patients taking 1995 as baseline and compared with the profile seen in year 2000.A total of 2149 and 1703 cases were studied respectively of year 1995 and 2000. Male to female ratio slightly increased from 2.95:1 in year 1995 to 3.4:1 in year 2000. Majority of patients were of borderline type in both years. Proportion of cases with MB leprosy was nearly same in females (60.8%) and males (63.1%) in year 1995 and in year 2000 (64.8% females and 67.6% males). Proportion of highly bacillary cases has decreased over the years in females (from 20.95% in 1995 to 11.7% in year 2000, p=0.03) as well as in males (from 25% in 1995 to 15.5% in year 2000, p=0.001). Incidence of total reactions increased from 27.6% to 35.4% over the years which is significant (p<0.01). Proportion of type 1 reactions were more in reproductive age group in females in both years (p<0.05) and of type 2 reactions were significantly (p 0.05) more in males in both years. Incidence of disability (both grade 1 and grade 2) was significantly more in males than in females in both years (p 0.04). Grade 1 disability has significantly increased over years in females from 10.11% to 14.8% (p<0.03) as well as in males from 13.27% to 21.3% (p<0.001).

Onset of reactions was associated with pregnancy / lactation in 62% of cases and with menopause in 21 % of cases in 2000, which suggests strong correlation with hormonal imbalance. To conclude while leprosy incidence has declined after MDT, recognition and management of reactions in women around changes in their hormonal levels should be properly monitored for early and effective management.

Key words : Leprosy, Type 1 and 2 reactions, Disability, Pregnancy/lactation